The Science Behind Kishu

Kishu is a finely crafted form of activated charcoal also called activated carbon. By heating wood to an extremely high temperature, usually in a kiln, and slowly depriving it of oxygen, the wood becomes carbonized. Kishu Charcoal is 97% pure carbon.

This pure form of carbon readily absorbs or bonds with toxins, principally metals, at the molecular level. These toxins can be found in municipal water systems and may include lead, mercury, copper, cadmium and chlorine. KIshu has been tested to remove all of them.

“Kishu Charcoal has been found to be effective at reducing lead, mercury, copper, cadmium and chlorine, over a period of time, as demonstrated in the graphs below.”

James R. Self, Ph.D.
Colorado State University
Soil, Water, Plant Testing Lab

 

September 5, 2013

To: Judith Bershof

From: James R. Self, Ph.D.
Colorado State University
Soil, Water and Plant Testing Lab

Re: The Evaluation of Oak Charcoal From Wakayama, Japan To Remove Metals from Water

 

A Test Report For the Removal of Chlorine Using
Kishu Charcoal Sticks

Introduction

Five sticks of Kishu charcoal were received in their original packaging  on March 1, 2015. The samples were registered in the laboratory as one sample labelled Kishu (charcoal sticks). The sample was stored in its original packaging at room temperature until the testing was initiated. The testing was carried out in March, 2015.

Objective

The objective of the test was to determine whether the Kishu charcoal stick could remove chlorine from tap water that had a known concentration of chlorine added to it.

Methods

A tap water sample from the municipal water supply was aerated for one hour to remove any residual chlorine. The sample was measured for free chlorine and total chlorine using a YSI Model 900 Chlorine Colorimeter to ensure that the chlorine levels in the water sample had dissipated to a non-detectable level.
The tap water sample containing a 22g piece of Kishu charcoal was then spiked with one ppm chlorine. Testing for free and total chlorine commenced at time zero and was checked at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 seconds. The total combined chlorine (total chlorine – free chlorine) was determined and plotted against time.
A second  control sample without the Kishu charcoal was also spiked with  one ppm chlorine and was also measured at the same times for the same parameters as the Kishu treated sample.

Results

The plot of chlorine vs. time indicates that the Kishu charcoal stick removed about 42% chlorine compared to about 12% chlorine removal in the control sample after 300 sec (5 min).


chlorine


Lead

An oak charcoal stick was evaluated to determine its effect on removing lead from deionized water.  The charcoal (23.45g) was placed in a one liter beaker containing 500 mL of 1 ppm Pb.  A 5 mL water sample was removed from the beaker after  0, 24, 48, and 144 hours and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy for lead. It was found that 89% of the lead was removed from the water by the carbon stick after 24 hours and that a non-detectable level of lead was found after 144 hours (figure 1). Although additional tests are being conducted, it appears that the carbon stick was effective in removing lead from the deionized water.

lead

Mercury

An oak charcoal stick was evaluated to determine its effect on removing mercury (Hg) from deionized water.  The charcoal (25.35g) was placed in a one liter beaker containing 500 mL of 0.1 ppm Hg.  A  water sample was removed from the beaker after  0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 24 and 48 hours and analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption (EPA method 245.1) for mercury. It was found that 28% of the mercury was removed from the water by the carbon stick after 48 (figure 2). It appears that the carbon stick was effective in removing some mercury from the deionized water. A longer exposure time may result in additional Hg removal.

mercury

Copper

An oak charcoal stick was evaluated to determine its effect on removing copper (Cu) from deionized water.  The charcoal (26.73g) was placed in a one liter beaker containing 500 mL of 3.0 ppm Cu.  A  water sample was removed from the beaker after  0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 24 and 48 hours and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (EPA method 200.7) for mercury. It was found that copper was decreased by one half of the original concentration by the carbon stick after 48 (figure 3). It appears that the carbon stick was effective in removing copper from the deionized water. A longer exposure time may result in additional Cu removal.

copper

Cadmium   

An oak charcoal stick was evaluated to determine its effect on removing cadmium (Cd)  from deionized water.  The charcoal (28.82g) was placed in a one liter beaker containing 500 mL of 0.05 ppm Cd.  A  water sample was removed from the beaker after  0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 24 and 48 hours and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (EPA method 200.7) for cadmium. It was found that cadmium was decreased by about 30% of the original concentration by the carbon stick after 48 hours (figure 4). It appears that the carbon stick was effective in removing cadmium from the deionized water. A longer exposure time may result in additional Cd removal.

cadmium

DROP.

DRINK.

ENJOY!